TRIP TO MONGOLIA TOURS
INFORMATION FOR TRAVELERS
The common natural resource is surface and underground
water. The total annual water reservoir of Mongolia is 1,200 billion cubic feet
(34 billion cu.m.) and most of it is fresh water. In Mongolia, there are many
possibilities of using the water resource properly.
- Ancient Times
- The Birth (Origin) of Mongols
- The Period of the Hunnu State (Hsiung-nu)
- The Period of the Cian-hi State (Hsien-pi)
- The Period of the Jujan State (Rouran)
- The Period of the Turkish State
- The Period of the Uighur State
- The Period of the Kitan State
- The Period of the Mongol Empire
- The Formation of the Mongol Khanligs. The Formation of the Great Mongol State. The Mongol Empire
- Mongolia from the 14th to the 16th centuries.
- Mongolia from the 17th to the 19th centuries.
- Mongolia in the 20th century.
- Mongolia on the Path of Democracy Chronicles
There are many traces of the ancient human race in the territory of
Mongolia, including archaeological discoveries in the white cave of
Bayanlig and stone weapons found in the Uran Khairkhan hill of Baatsagaan
somon, Bayankhongor aimag. According to these discoveries, it becomes
likely that human being lived in the territory of Mongolia almost 700
thousand years ago. There is a hypothesis that Mongolia is a cradle of the
very first human race on Earth. This assumption is based on the
appearances of Mongols. Mongols had straight black hair, broad foreheads,
narrow eyes, thick lashes, short noses, protruding cheek bones, strong
chests and narrow waists. Those people were the product of nature and
climatic conditions of Mongolia. Skilled labor produced the homo sapiens
almost 40,000 years ago. With the increase of wealth and emergence of
private ownership, the clan structure collapsed. Wealthy families came to
live in aimag structures. Several aimags formed a union of aimags. Power
was concentrated among few descendants of wealthy families and heads of
THE PERIOD OF THE HUNNU STATE
(Hsiung-nu, 3rd century BCE - 2nd
Mongol, Turk and Jurchen races had been living in the Mongolian
territory from ancient times. They alternatively ruled over each other.
However the first politically organized community was the Hunnu State. It
was the prototype of the states of Mongolia. According to the chronicles,
there was a nomadic tribe Khu in the 5th century BCE. The people was
engaged in animal husbandry and each tribe had it's chief cleric. They
formed a confederation of tribes. Those were the Hunnu people who became
particularly prosperous in the 4th century BCE. The confederation annexed
24 Hunnu aimags. Tumen was named the Khaan of the Hunnu. Tumen belonged to
the aristocratic family of the Khian tribe. It was since that period that
Khaan ceased to be elected at the conference, but became a dynastic title.
Hunnu people fell victims of the aggressive policy pursued by the Ching
dynasty, and aimed at expanding the territory to the North. The Hunnus
were driven far from the Ordos territory. The Chinese fortified their new
Great Wall. Tumen Khaan made unsuccessful attempts to unite various Hun
aimags and organize the state. Tumen Khaan, induced by his young wife,
made his son by his youngest wife, the heir to the throne. But his elder
son Modun, assassinated both his father and his younger sibling and seized
the throne in 209 BCE. The Hunnu State was not a merely Mongol State. It
was the first organized State among the nomadic people of the Central
Asia. Modun Khaan annexed the territories in the North and West. In 200
BCE he defeated the Chinese. In 198 BCE Modun Khaan concluded a treaty
with the Hun State of China. The Hun dynasty of China, thus, recognized
the Hunnu State. Modun Khaan conquered western Turkestan and controlled
the trade road, which connected the West and East. The Hunnu State
developed into a great power. The territory of the Hunnu State extended
from the Ordos to the lake Baikal, and from the Khyangan mountain range to
the Altai mountain range. However, the Hun Dynasty of China had been
consistently pursuing on the "divide and rule" policy, which in
the end brought to the break up of the Hunnu State in 48 ¬—≈, and
THE PERIOD OF THE CIANBI STATE
(Hsiung-pi) (2nd - 4th centuries CE)
The South Hunnu was under a strong Chinese influence and the North
Hunnu people moved farther to the North. The remaining 100 thousand
families, or over 500 thousand Huns, joined the Cian-bi people, who formed
the Cian-bi State. Tanishikhuai (136-181) played an important role in
organizing and consolidating the Cian-bi State. The Cian-bi State grew
stronger and expanded its territory in the east and occupied the territory
stretching as far as to the Korean peninsula. The Cian-bi State was
situated on the territory stretching from the lake of Baikal to the
Chinese wall, and from the Korean peninsula to the He Tarbagatai.
Tanishikhuai divided his State into 3 parts: eastern, central and western.
In 181 —≈ Tanishikhuai passed away and his son Khelyang took over. The
State affairs deteriorated under his rule. The Cian-bi State broke up.
However, Kebinen, lord of one of the aimags, gathered over 10 thousand
soldiers and reunited the Cian-bi State. In 235 —≈ Kebinen died. As a
result, in the middle of the 3rd century CE, after his death, the Cian-bi
State was divided into the East and West Cian-bi States, and gradually
THE PERIOD OF THE JUJAN STATE (Rouran)
The Jujan State is related to the Cian-bi people. Those were Mongolian
speaking people. The State stretched on a vast territory of Mongolia, the
western part of Manchuria and eastern part of the Uighur autonomous
region, in the present Sing-zian. In the 5th century CE in the territory
of the Jujan State there was the lake of Baikal in the North, Gobi and
Chinese wall in the South, the Altai mountain range in the West and Korean
peninsula in the East. The political center of the Jujan State was located
at the foot of the Khangai mountain.
THE PERIOD OF THE TURKISH STATE
The policy of the Turkish State was aimed at taking control over the
great trade road. By 580's CE, the Turkish State expanded to annex
numerous aimags with people of diverse nationalities. They defeated the
Ephtalit State in the West and subdued the Kirghiz people living in the
Enisei basin of Siberia in the North. During the period of the Turkish
State it's territory expanded to reach the Korean peninsula. By the end of
4th century CE, the Turkish State was divided into the eastern and western
parts. And Uighur people, who were a part of the Turkish State, defeated
the eastern Turkish State in 745 CE. Thus the Uighur State became the
successor of the Turkish State.
THE PERIOD OF THE UIGHUR STATE
The Uighur State adopted and pursued on the policy of the Turkish
State. During this period the Uighur State controlled the great trade road
from China to the Middle East.
THE PERIOD OF THE KITAN STATE
Between the 10th-12th centuries, the Kitans took over. They lived in
the basin of the Liao river at the eastern foothills of the Khyangan
Mountains. The Elui tribe ruled the Kitan State. In 901 Ambagyan of the
Elui tribe ascended the throne. The Kitan State occupied the southeast of
the Mongolian territory in 924, Bahain and 16 regions in the North of
China in 936. However, intertribal discords and feuds undermined the
strength of the Kitan State. At the end of 1120's, the Kitan State
THE PERIOD OF THE MONGOL EMPIRE
FORMATION OF MONGOL KHANLIGS
At the beginning of the 12th century, due to various developments in
the Mongolian society, several Khanates, or small Kingdoms were formed.
Khanates of Khereyids and Naimans were located in the basin of the three
rivers and Altai Mountains. Confederation of three Merkid Khanates
stretched along the Selenge river in the North. There was a big Khanate of
Tatar tribes by the lake of Buir in the East. The Onggud tribal
confederation was situated in the South of Mongolia. All Mongol Khanlig
was set up in 1130's, in the form of confederation of Khanates. Khabula, a
descendant of a noble Mongol Dynasty, became the first Khaan of the All
Mongol Khanlig. After his death, Khabula Khaan's grandson Yesugei ruled
the Mongol Khanlig. Years of discord and ruthless feuds followed Yesugei's
death in 1170. Confederation of Khanates fell apart. In the long and
grue1ing battle for power one man distinguished himself as a man of
remarkable will, intelligence and leadership talent. Temujin, the son of
Yesugei and great-grandson of Khabula Khaan, was the man, who was able to
unite the Mongol tribes and revive the confederation of All Mongol
FORMATION OF THE GREAT MONGOL STATE
Temujin became the Khaan of All Mongols, and the title "Chinggis
Khaan" was conferred upon him. By 1205 All Mongol Khanates had been
subjugated by Chinggis Khaan. At the Huraltai (Assembly of Mongol States),
held in 1206, it was proclaimed that the peoples of Mongolian ancestry had
been united. Chinggis Khaan acsended the throne of the united Mongol
States to become the Great Mongol Emperor.
THE MONGOL EMPIRE
The Great Empire of Mongols was founded by Chinggis Khaan. The Mongol
Empire reached it's greatest territorial extent in the 13th century,
encompassing most of Asia and extending westward to the Eastern Europe.
Chinggis Khaan was a remarkable military leader, strategist and a wise
statesman. He passed away at the age of 66. Chinggis Khaan left to
posterity a powerful and unconquerable Empire, as well as pride and
grateful memories of himself. After the death of Chinggis Khaan, his son
Ogodei became the Khaan of the Mongol Empire. Ogodei reigned from 1228 to
1241. The Mongol Empire expanded to comprise northern China, Turkestan,
Middle East, Russia, Ukraine, Caucasus and Iran. Batu, grandson of
Chinggis Khaan, reached Hungary Poland and Moravia in 1241-1242. Another
grandson of Chinggis Khaan - Kubilai Khaan - conquered the whole territory
of China and became the founder of the Mongol Dynasty in China. The Mongol
Empire existed for almost 150 years, up to the end of the 14th century.
MONGOLIA FROM THE 14th TO THE 16th CENTURIES
The Mongol Empire declined at the end of the 14th century.
Nevertheless, the Mongol Empire remained in the form of confederation. It
controlled the territory stretching from the Khyangan Mountains in the
East, up to the Irtish and Enisei rivers, from Tengri Mountain in the
North, the Great Wall of China in the South. The last Emperor of the
Mongol Dynasty was Togugan Timor. In the early 15th century, Mongolia was
divided into two separate parts, which led to further break up of the
Empire. Dayan Khaan( 1464-1543) ascended the throne in 1470. His efforts
aimed at reunification of All the Mongols had failed.
MONGOLIA FROM THE 17th TO THE 19th CENTURIES
The period that started from the end of the 15th century and lasted for
nearly 3 centuries, can be referred to as era of the Manchu domination in
Asia. The Manchu was a highly militaristic State, that attacked and
subjugated Mongolia. Ligden, the great grandson of Batu-Mongke Dayan Khaan,
who was the last direct descendant of Chinggis Khaan, was defeated. After
having conquered the Tsahar State in 1636, Manchus took Inner Mongolia
under their control. In 1644 Beijing was occupied. Mongolia was divided,
and the Khalkha Mongols and Oiryid Mongols waged wars against each other.
At the meeting initiated by Undurgegen Zanabazar, feudals representing the
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia, took a decision to seek protection of
the Manchu State. Thus, Mongolia came under the full control of Manchus.
The Ching Dynasty established it's rule and laws over the entire territory
of Mongolia. The Manchus consistently pursued on the policy aimed at
maintaining disunity of Mongol aimags. Numerous attempts to throw off the
Manchu yoke were undertaken by Mongols. The last unsuccessful uprising in
1755-1758, was led by the Oiryid Mongolian Prince Amarsanaa. The Manchu
tyranny was to last up to the 20th century.
MONGOLIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY
MONGOLIA BY THE EARLY 1900s: THEOCRATIC STATE
After many attempts to restore independence of Mongolia had failed,
Mongolians, desperate to throw off the Manchus, appealed to Russia for
aid. In 1911, a meeting was convened in Jikhe Khuree (present Ulaanbaator),
at which Bogda, the Grand Lama, and noble men from the Inner Mongolia
decided to send a delegation to Russia. However, the mission was
unsuccessful. In November of 1911, Bogda, the Grand Lama, was urged to
declare independence of Mongolia, and provisional government was formed.
The provisional government was headed by G.Chagdarjav, speaker of Tusheet
Khan aimag, and consisted of seven members, including Prince Ts. Khanddorj
and G. Tserenchimed, the high lama. The govemmnet led the national
liberation movement. By the end of 1911, the Manchu viceroy in Jikhe
Khuree was forced out, in the early 1912, Uliastai, another important
administrative post, was liberated. Liberation of the western part of
Mongolia in the summer of 1912, created conditions for the overthrow of
the Manchu rule in the whole territory of Mongolia. Bogda Javjandamba
became a monarch, and declared independence of Mongolia. In the South, the
Manchus were defeated by the Chinese. The Chinese Republic, established in
1912, was headed by president da Juntan Yan-Shi-Kai. It refused to
recognize Mongolia's independence. In 1914, three-party talks to include
delegations from Mongolia, Russia and China, were launched. These talks,
known as Khyagta meeting, dealt with the political status of Mongolia. As
a result of these talks, a tripartite agreement was reached, according to
which Mongolia was split up, to form Outer Mongolia and Inner Mongolia but
REVOLUTIONARY EVENTS OF 1919-1921
Russia's revolution of 1917 had a great impact on events in Mongolia.
Russian Czarist General G. Semenov initiated a conference, at which the
formation of pan-Mongolia confederation was declared. The confederation
was to consist of Inner and Outer Mongolia, Barga and Buryat Mongolia.
Mongolian government was not represented at this conference. Nevertheless,
Chinese military troops, headed by General Hsu-Shi-Chang, were deployed in
Jikhe Khuree. Mongolia's autonomy was abolished in November, 1919.
Revolutionary events in Russia inspired spontaneous uprisings in Mongolia.
Two underground political groups were formed, which in June of 1920 were
organized into the People's Party of Mongolia. One of the leaders of the
liberation movement - D.Sukhbaatar - formed the people's army of Mongolia
and liberated Jikhe Khuree from Baron Ungern, in July 1921. By 1922, the
entire territory of Mongolia was free from foreign occupation, and the
people's government was formed.
YEARS OF POLITICAL REPRESSION
In 1920s, after the death of the Bogda Khaan, Mongolia had a real
alternative to repressions and executions, that followed the revolutionary
events. The idea of development along the path of national democracy was
extremely popular among many leaders of the Mongolian People's Party (MPP)
and government. However, the influence on the part of Komintern and
Bolshevik government in Russia was overwhelming.
In August of 1924, the third Congress of the MPP adopted a communist type
program, thus condemning the country to many years of political terrorism
and later on stagnation and political inertia. The first Deputy Prime
Minister S. Danzan and others, who stood in opposition to the majority's
views, were executed. This marked the beginning of witch hunting in
Many prominent leaders, including the Prime Minister B. Tserendorj,
Deputy Prime Minister A. Amar, Chairman of the MPP's Central Committee,
and T. Tseveen fell victims to Stalinist type repressions. Repressions
against religion and lamas were especially severe. Between 1937-1939, over
700 temples and monasteries were destroyed,' and over 17,000 lamas and
monks executed. Political massacre continued up to 1941.
MONGOLIA DURING THE II WORLD WAR
In 1930s, when fascism in Europe and Asia became a real threat,
Mongolia signed a Protocol with the Soviet Union, on rendering military
assistance in case of insult by a third country. Undeclared war started on
28 May 1939, when Japanese troops attacked Mongolia's borders in the area
of the Khakhyn-Gol. Pursuant to the provisions of the Protocol, Soviet
troops were brought up to the border, and Mongolian-Soviet joint forces
stopped the invader in August, 1939. The tripartite negotiations held
between Mongolia, Soviet Union and Japan in 1940, settled the border
disputes. When in June 1941 the Nazist Germany invaded the Soviet Union,
Mongolia offered a helping hand to the Soviet people. Domestic resources
were mobilized and sent as aid to the Soviet Red Army. At the Yalta
conference held in February, 1945, the leaders of the Soviet Union, USA
and UK agreed to the existing status quo with regards to the Outer
YEARS OF SOCIALISM
After the II World War, Mongolia adopted the Soviet five-year-plan
pattern in the economic policy. In 1958, 99.7 percent of the country's
total livestock was nationalized. In 1960, the Constitution was revised to
proclaim a single political party monopoly, single form of property and
Mongolia remained one of the most closed countries in the world up
until 1990s. Politically, the country was a satellite of the Soviet
system. Economically, Mongolia was heavily dependent on Russian subsidies.
Distortions in the economy and inefficient governance brought the country
to social, economic and political stagnation.
MONGOLIA ON THE PATH OF DEMOCRACY
With the brake-up of the socialist system, deep political and economic
reforms were launched in Mongolia to mark the beginning of the country's
transition from a centrally planned system to a market economy. Mongolia
adopted democratic norms and principles through introduction of
multi-party, parliamentary system. In 1990s, for the first time in the
country's history, democratically elected government approved the program
for transition towards the market. Privatization of the state-owned
property and the policy of liberalization were launched. Mongolia declared
the policy of open doors. Since 1991, the government of Mongolia, has been
pursuing on a program of economic stabilization.
- Facts about Mongolia 2000. by Da. Gandbold.
ADMOND Co.Ltd., Mongolia.
- Mongolia. Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd.