Historical highlights. Tour to Novosibirsk. Novosibirsk history.
TRIP TO NOVOSIBIRSK
NOVOSIBIRSK . HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS
ore then 100 years ago Alexander III Russian emperor
pointed out in his rescript to his heir that it is necessary "to connect by
inner railway net the Siberian regionswhich are richest with gifts of
Nature". Thus, the building of Great Siberian Railway has begun.
Primarily it was considered that Trans-Siberian
Railroad would cross the Ob river near the big age-old Kolyvan village. But
owing to insistence of Mr. N.G.Garin-Mikhaylovsky, the chief of prospecting
party and a Russian writer, they took a final decision to build the bridge at
the Krivoschokovo village. Mr. Garin wrote later: "The change of primary
project is my own merit, and I see with pleasure that the railroad isn't
declined from my idea". On May 20, 1893 in a thick pine wood on the bank of
the Ob river there have been held a solemn church service on the occasion of
laying of the bridge, the project of which had been prepared by N.A.Belelubsky,
professor of the Petersburg Railway College.Very many workers were required for
the bridge building. Thus, the Novonikolaevsk settlement have appeared and
became later the largest town of Russian Asia.
In the spring of 1897 the bridge across the Ob river
was opened for traffic. By that time the building of railway station and
locomotive depot with workshops was completed. After that many builders left for
other building sites, but the settlement didn't become deserted and the work
went on there. That was significantly promoted by convenient, even ideal
geographical situation. The peasants from Altay and the nearest villages brought
here the greatest quantities of grain for further transportation by railroad.
The trade capital opened up actively the region of the
Great Siberian Way that in the shortest time made the small settlement to grow
into a big city; Novonikolaevsk was given the official status of the city on
Novonikolaevsk soon became the place of concentration of
banking capital. Although in 1906 there was only one financial institute in the
city - the SiberianBank, in 1915 there were already 5 commercial banks and 2
land ones in the town.
The population of the town was raising so quickly, that
the first city's head, Mr.V.Jernakov said: "It (Novonikolaevsk) has got
rightfully the name of American City". In 1897, when the bridge was opened
for traffic, the Novonikolaevsk settlement accounted 7,8 thousand people. In
1903 it was already a town without so called "uezd" - surrounding
administrative territory - and accounted 22 thousand people. In 1907 it became a
city with all the rights of self-government and population of 47 thousand.
Before February Revolution Novonikolaevsk already had 80
thousand of population and was the largest commercial and industrial center
having not only an agricultural processing industry, power station, iron
foundry, commodity market, banks, commercial and shipping companies, but also 7
Orthodox churches, one Roman-Catholic church, several cinemas, 40 primary
schools, a high school, teachers' seminary and the Romanov House' non-classical
secondary school. It is remarkable that Novonikolaevsk was nearly the first town
in Russia which accepted the compulsory primary education in 1913.
Novonikolaevsk continued its safe and successful
development even in such storming and tragical for Russia years as 1915-1917.
Shops were heaped up with goods; all markets were packed with bread, meat and
butter. Merchants of Novonikolaevsk, who had become rich enormously because of
military supplies, were thinking already of building of a tram line. Town's
inhabitants were discussing lively the erecting of the Invalid House that
recently began, and obviously that event was more interesting for them then war
and revolution in Russia. May be that was the reason they accepted without
any enthusisam the message about Bolsheviks, who had come into power in the
capital of Russia.
Nevertheless, the town couldn't stand aside of social
cataclysms. On December,1917 the Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers` Deputies of
Novonikolaevsk seized the power. And just after that the civil war came to the
town. On May, 1918 Czechoslovak prisoners of war set up the outbreak and
together with White Guards captured Novonikolaevsk. The town became the
important strategic place of admiral Kolchak's Army accounted of 500 thousand.
But on December of 1919 Novonikolaevsk was taken by Red Army.
The folly of civil war acquired monstrous forms.
"White" and "red" terror, military actions, terrible typhus
and cholera epidemics, - all those took off many thousands of lives. The bridge
across Ob was blown up. For the first time in the Novonikolaevsk' history the
number of town inhabitants decreased.
The town revived only in 1921 after starting of Lenin's
New Economic Policy. At that time Novonikolaevsk again was turned up into
commercial, industrial and transportation center where many thousands of
peasants carts brought grain and butter. Workers, who had scampered about
surrounding villages before, came now back to their depot and factories. Soon
the Bolsheviks' regional political administration run over from Omsk to
Novonikolaevsk. In 1925 there was formed the vast Siberian Region spreading from
the Vasugan swamps up to the Trans-Baikal steppes, and Novonikolaevsk became its
In 1926 the town had got a new name of
Novosibirsk. The status of Novosibirsk as administrative center of Siberia
influenced much upon the town appearance. Monumental 3-, 4- and 5- storied
buildings were firstly erected in the streets of Novosibirsk. Lenin House,
Palace of Work, Dwelling House (now Central Hotel), Sibrevkom (now The Picture
Gallery) and other buildings were constructed under the projects of talented
Siberian architects headed by professor A.D.Kryachkov.
In the years of Stalin's Industrialization
Novosibirsk from large commercial city turned into a big industrial center of
Siberia. Many industrial giants were built here: the Sibkombain plant, mining
tools plant, metal processing plant, food processing and other plants and
factories, and a high power station also. In 1932-1933, when the terrible hunger
broke out in Central Russia, more then 170 thousand refugees arrived at
Novosibirsk. They settled down in barracks in the town outskirts, in shacks and
huts. The slum rose as quick as mushrooms after rain: Big Nakhalovka, Little
Nakhalovka and others.
But the center of Novosibirsk as before had being built
by pompous buildings for administrative offices and institutions called for
maintaining the firmness of Stalin's regime forever. Fortunately, Siberian
architects with their recognized head A.D.Kryachkov possessed enough taste and
fantasy to erect those buildings in such a way they are the proud of the town
nowdays. In 1954 the tram rails were laid in the streets of Novosibirsk: the
biggest city of Siberia had already 287 thousand population and needed vitaly
that kind of transport.
Nevertheless, Novosibirsk started as integrated
architectural complex only after1955, when the Kommunalny bridge, main city
bridge across Ob, was built. Just from that time the town chose the way of total
renovation and improvement. Activity of building companies acquired really
industrial basis. Large-panel construction became the main kind of house
Nature environment of the town was changing also
because of industrial development. In the middle of 50-s a hydro power
station for 400 kilowatts was erected near Novosibirsk, that caused the creation
of a new great water reservoir - the Ob Sea. Unfortunately, that power station
didn't solve all the problems of power supply; instead of it, it caused new
others. Vast fertile fields were flooded; relic pine woods were founded under
water; because of new wide plain water space the wind speed rose half as much
again causing higher soil eroding.
In 1957 the building of a large science center was
started on the bank of the Ob Sea; it was the Siberian Branch of Science Academy
of the USSR, so called Academgorodok.
That new part of the town included 14 research institutes, an university,
dwelling and public buildings also, a department store and a Scientists House.
The territory of Novosibirsk extended more and more,
and the population of the town was rising. In the early 60-s the population of
Novosibirsk reached one million. In the subsequent years new architectural sites
were created in the town - scientist centers of Academy of Medicine and Academy
The construction of subway was started in Novosibirsk
in 1979. The first line was opened in 1985. So the 90-s years have started, and
that was a turning point for the whole country. But in spite of economical
crisis, Novosibirsk goes on its developing. Commercial banks, markets, exchanges
and private companies have appeared again in the town. Now the future of
Novosibirsk is closely bound up with a new social economical system of all the
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