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Mongolian belongs to the Altaic family of language groups. It originated from the ancient Mongolian dialect, and now includes the languages of north Mongolia or vowel harmony, such as central Mongolian, Buryat, Kalmyk, Afghanistan Mogol and the languages of south Mongolia or languages without rules of vowel harmony, such as Daguur, Dunsyan (Santo), Monger and Bayaoni. The development of Mongolian literary language is divided into three stages, The early stage started in unknown times before the 5th century CE (CE - the Common Era). The second stage began in the 5th century. The third stage continued in the 1940s, when the grammar structures of the modern Mongolian developed. This process is continuing now.

It is believed that writing was invented about 5,000 years ago, and inscriptions on Mongolian's archaeological finds and ancient monuments can be traced as back as 2,000 years. Speakers of Mongolian had been using many scripts throughout their history. Tabgach people had their own script in 425 CE, which did not use vowels, but letters that indicated syllables. Later, Kitans had two kinds of script "Big" and "Small", and the latter was used to indicate vowels. Tela who was inspired by the Uighur script, invented the writing in 925 CE. Mongolian script or Uighur script, has played an important role in the history of Mongolian culture. The time when it was invented is still unknown. Some linguists believe that it was in use much earlier, as it reflects Mongolian phonetics. Mongolian alphabet consists of 14 basics, which represent 5 vowels and 22 consonants. Peculiarity of the Old Mongolian script is that each letter has different forms at initial, middle and final positions of a word. The main grammar rule is the final letter rule by which 11 consonants (N, B, G, T, L, R, S, D, I, V, N) end a closed syllable. The Old Mongolian script is very suitable to dialects, which are different from each other. "Durvuljin usug"(Square letter) alphabet was invented by Pagva Lama in 1269 although it was no longer used at the decline of the Mongol Empire and was only used for decoration and other purposes. - "Tod usug"(Clear letter) - the Oiryid alphabet, which was invented by Zaya Pandita in 1618 and 'Soyombo' alphabet invented by Zanabazar in 1686 were not used commonly. After the early 1940s, Mongolians started to use the 35 letters of the Mongolian Cyrillic script which represent those of the Russian alphabet plus two additional letters. This corresponds to the spelling with pronunciation and has significantly contributed to the development of a modern grammar of literary Mongolian. Recently the issue of reintroducing the national script of Mongolia as an official script, or using the Latin alphabet, has been hotly debated throughout the country.

The script is Cyrillic due to Russian influence but a switch back to traditional script has begin in schools. Second language: Russian is spoken by many graduates, with many Mongolians formerly educated in Russia. English is replacing Russian as the second language. German is spoken by many graduates, and a little Spanish, French and Japanese is spoken. Chinese not widely understood except in border areas.

  • Facts about Mongolia 2000. by Da. Gandbold. ADMOND Co.Ltd., Mongolia.
  • Mongolia. Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd.



- About Mongolia

- The state symbols of Mongolia

- Fact for visitor

- Geographical features 

- Climate

- History

- Population

- Language and writing

- Water reserve

- Flora and fauna

- Map of Mongolia


- Historical essentials of Mongolian culture

- Mongolian art and culture

- Mongolian script

- Mongolian music

- Fine art

- Mongolian theatre

- Mongolian dance

- Mongolian cinema

- National Circus


- Nomads cuisine

- Mongolian milk

- White food of the Mongol

- Mongolian ger

- Morin Khur

- Mongol Zurag New!!!

- Tsagaan sar

- Naadam festivale


- Hotel

- Tourist camps.

- Train time table (Ulaanbaatar).

- International flight time table.

- Domestic flight time table in Mongolia.




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